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 The Center for the Study of Developing Countries
Cairo University
The Center Publications

Development Forum.
Development Issues.
Development Library.
Development Notes.
1999 Publications.
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1- Development Forum:

Development Forum No.1. June, 1995(Arabic) p.70

These series are intended to shed light on subjects that are closely related to the problem of Development, to attract due attention to the issues and crisis which developing countries share and face and to analyze the various aspects of the problem from a theoretical, as well as, a practical point of view.

This booklet includes four lectures given by four distinguished thinkers as a part of a main activity organized by the Center. These thinkers that are generally interested in the problem of development are Dr.Mustafa Kamil Tulba, Dr.Ismail Sabty Abdullah, Mr.Mohammed Fa'iq and Dr.Mahmoud . They addressed in their lectures four different subjects. These subjects are: The relation between Development and Environment; The Social aspects of Development; Development and Human Rights and Development in Latin (Brazil as a case study), respectively.

Development Forum No.3 June, 1996 (Arabic) p.88

Themes debated include the cultural dimension of development, particularly the relationship between Islam and development, public policies including demographic and food subsidies and finally issues of transition from authoritarianism in South African and the Middle East.

These Themes were introduced by a host of distinguished Egyptian and foreign professors including the Egyptians Ghali Shukri, Tarek El-Bishri, Sonia Ali, the French Philippe Faruge, the Lebanese- American Ilia Harike, the South African Mbolelo Nzamin and the Americans Liza Anderson, Gregory Gaus and Richard Adams.

Development Forum No.5, Oct.1997. (Arabic) p.62

In this Fifth issue of " Development Forum" published by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries of Cairo University, texts and notes of public lectures organized at the Center during the first term of the academic year 1996-1997 are presented. Themes debated include many topics in development from different dimensions. They include:Export Promotion Strategy in Egypt, Enlightenment in Egypt, Information Technology: a developmental approach, State and Economic Change in East Asia and East Europe, Globalization and political Islam Challenge.

These themes were introduced by a host of distinguished Egyptian Professors: Ahmed Jawyli, Ahmed Abdel-Moati Hegazi, Nabil Ali, and foreign Professors: Jeffery Henderson and Pandeli Glavanis. edited by Dr.Salah Zarnouka

2-Development Issues:

Development Issues No.1: The Social Summit: International, Regional and Local Aspects, edited by Dr.Ola Abou Zeid, 1996. (Arabic) p.185

This book is the first to be published by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries in its "Development Issues". It includes papers presented in the symposium held by the Center on the occasion of the World Summit in Copenhagen in March 1995. The symposium was organized a month later with the participation of some officials and leaders of non-governmental organizations who took part in its deliberations.

Authors of the various chapters in this book discuss many aspects of the social question, including the role of the United Nations in the area of social development, dimensions of human development in Arab countries, and the world conditions, which led to the convening of the conference. Other authors examine the social question in Egypt, outlining the magnitude of unemployment and poverty in the country, contribution of non-governmental organizations to the alleviation of poverty, and the negative impact of structural adjustment policies on social conditions in Egypt.

Development Issues No.2: The UN and the issues of the South Countries edited by Dr.Atiyya Afandi, 1996. (Arabic) p.145

This is the second book in this series on " Development Issues" published by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries, which focuses concerns of countries of the South that have been dealt with by the United Nations. This book includes a study written by Dr.Atiyya Hussein, associate professor of political science at the Faculty of Economics and Political Science of Cairo University, and the debate on the issues raised in this study. The study offers a theoretical framework for the analysis of the role of the UN with respect to problems of these countries and examines few of the most important of these problems, whether they were of political or economic nature. Issues of development, peace and security, human rights and refugees figure prominently among these problems. The study analyses also positions of countries of the South with respect to reform of the United Nations and strives to explore the future of this organization. This book includes the discussion that took place among participants in the conference organized on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations on October 24,1995 convened by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries to which the study was presented. It was addressed by a keynote speech given by the eminent Egyptian economist Sa’eid El-Naggar. Participants in the discussion included diplomats, journalists, and university professors.

Development Issues No.3: Partners in Development: The political and social aspects of the economic reform in Egypt edited by Dr.Alia El-Mahdi, 1996. (Arabic) p.292

Economic reform is not an exclusively economic issue, to be decided only by economists and entrepreneurs. It is also a highly complex social, political and even a cultural question. For economic reform to succeed, certain social and political preconditions, such as social stability and good governance, must be met. Economic reform has also serious social and political repercussions. It imposes a considerable cost of reform is too heavy, it would be suspended half way, or the government committed to it might fall, one way or another. For these reasons, both the content and the pace of economic reform, should be a matter of national consensus among the principal social partners, namely labour, business and government, so that they would all accept its burden and share in the enjoyment of its benefits.

This book offers therefore an analysis of diverse dimensions of economic reform and reflections on the experience of its early phase in Egypt by spokesmen of these social partners as well as academics concerned with this highly important issue.

Development Issues No.4: " Squatter settlements " and models of Development edited by Dr.Ali El-Sawi, 1996. (Arabic) p.158

This book is the fourth in the series " Development Issues" published by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries of Cairo University. It deals with the question of substandard housing communities, referred to in the literature normally under the term "squatter settlements ". Both public opinion and the government in Egypt were intensely concerned with this issue in the last few years, perceiving conditions of living in these areas, home to nearly twelve million people, according to some estimates, to be quite degrading to human beings, and to be fertile grounds for the emergence of crime, terrorist activities and other types of deviant behavior.

However, the scientific study of this question demonstrates that such communities do not come into being by accident. They in fact constitute the inevitable outcome of specific development models that disregard social dimensions of development, particularly distribution of income and wealth between rural and urban areas, between the rich and the poor, which overlooks employment implications of the introduction of state - of - the art technologies, while denying the poor any effective channels for political participation. The optimistic conclusion of these studies is that such communities also demonstrate the capacity of the population living therein to help themselves and to find solutions for their employment, housing conditions without any support from the state. The sensible approach to problems of these communities is to involve their population in the search for such solutions with the help of the state.

This book includes a study prepared by Dr.Ali Al-Sawi, associate professor of Political Science at Cairo University, and the debate, which this study stimulated whose participants came from a variety of backgrounds.

Development Issues No.5: Aspects of Structural Adjustment in Africa Egypt edited by Dr.Alia El-Mahdi, 1997. (English) p.313

The African countries faced countless problems during their struggle for achieving economic development. As a consequence of their growing and complicated problems, African countries sought help and support of both the IMF and World Bank. They implemented accordingly stabilization and structural adjustments programs, which were advised by the international organization. These programs had different repercussions on the economic, political as social spheres. This book is mainly concerned with presenting the different implications of the structural adjustment programs, which were adopted by some African countries. A special reference will be given to the Egyptian case as it represents and advanced example the implementation of a comprehensive economic reform program in an African country.

Development Issues No.6: Political Parties and the Development of Arab and non-Arab Countries edited by Dr.Mustapha K.Al-Sayyid and Dr.Salah Zarnouka, 1997. (Arabic) p.393

No matter how development is defined, it is commonly agreed among political scientists that political parties play an important role in it. Political Parties could contribute both to the emergence of a strong state, enjoying relative autonomy vis-à-vis domestic and foreign forces while possessing people’s support, and a strong - or civil - society in which citizens are free - individually and collectively - to engage in creative and innovative activities in non- political domains.

Political parties could contribute to enhancement of the legitimacy of political systems, widen political participation, consolidate national integration; peacefully resolve disputes and helps in pushing economic development.

How far Arab political parties perform these functions? This is the central question in this book, which examines the performance of these functions in Germany, Israel, Turkey as well as Lebanon, Sudan, Morocco and Egypt. This book is a product of a research project conducted jointly by the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and the Center for the Study of Developing Countries of Cairo University.

Development Issues No.7: Parliamentary Elections in Countries of the South edited by Dr.Salah Zarnouka, 1997. (Arabic) p.338

Democracy could be reduced to the organization of elections. However, modern democratic regimes are inconceivable without the mechanism of universal, free regular

fair elections .Of all types of elections, parliamentary elections have been seen as particularly important, since in some countries their outcome determines who is going to form the government, and in other countries, it could decide how smoothly executive power would be exercised, depending on the nature of the political system.

With Democracy ‘s third wave affecting many parts of the so-called "South", fair elections are no longer the monopoly of countries of the North. Many developing countries, in Asia, Africa and Latin America have seen the fall of their incumbent governments and the transfer of power to new hands as a result of such elections.

This book examines therefore electoral practices in countries of the Three Continents. Parliamentary elections are analyzed in Africa South of the Sahara, Brazil India and South Korea. A second part of the book focuses on an examination of some issues concerning parliamentary elections in Egypt, including the role of the judiciary in supervising them, their popular monitoring of elections, representativeness of their outcome and lessons of the 1995 People’s Assembly Elections. This book ends with a summary of the debates which these issues gave rise to in the seminar organized by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries in July 1996, where an early version of the chapters of this book was presented.

Development Issues No.8: The Participation in Development: The Model of the National Project to develop the New Valley edited by Dr.Mohammed Musaad and Dr.Salah Zarnouka, 1997. (Arabic) p.236

The question of development is a matter of concern, not only to government leaders, technocrats and international organizations, but is primarily an issue that should interest all citizens, who bear its cost and pay the price of its failure, in terms of persistent poverty and unemployment and degrading social and political conditions.
This simple truth, demonstrated in many development experiences and supported by most recent theories, which stress the importance of the human factor in development, applies in particular to highly ambitious development projects which require vast investments, and mobilization of huge material and human resources.
It is for such considerations that the Center for the Study of Developing Countries of Cairo University together with the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, organized a two day conference in Cairo, on March 25-26, bringing together former and present government officials, experts in multiple disciplines, businessmen and ordinary citizens, in order to debate various aspects of the ambitious venture known popularly under the name of the Toushki project, or officially as the National Project for Development of Southern Egypt, in the hope that research papers presented in this conference , and the debates they stimulated, would constitute a modest way of participation in directing planning and implementation of this highly important project.

Development Issues No.9: "Egypt beyond Foreign Aid: Towards Increased Self-Reliance" edited by Dr.Mustapha K. Al-Sayyid and Dr.Salah Zarnouka, 1998. (Arabic) p.296

Foreign aid is a controversial issue. For some policy-makers, foreign aid is a welcome complement to domestic sources. However, the same policy-maker did confront situations in which aid was used as a leverage to get recipient governments to adopt domestic or foreign policies to the liking of the donor government or face the prospect of the withholding of aid if they refuse to adopt such policies. The book proposes a development strategy of national and collective self-reliance as an alternative to systematic and extensive resort to foreign aid. It elaborates on the policies required to facilitate implementation of this strategy in the case of Egypt, including mobilization of domestic savings, increased cereal production, promotion of exports, expansion of military industries, diversification of sources of arms supplies as well as enhanced Arab economic cooperation. The different contributions in this book were initially presented as research papers in a conference organized by the Center of the Study of Developing Countries of Cairo University in November 1996.

Development Issues No.10: The Arab Association of Political Science: The Arabs and a New World Order (eds.) by Prof. Dr. Mustafa El-Sayyid and Dr. Salah Zarnouka, 1998. (Arabic) p.393

The New World situation is an object of heated debates among Arab intellectuals. The reason is very simple. Its impact has been so far quite negative in the Arab world. The bipolar system ensured for the Arabs finding a rival superpower that would, to some extent, balance the massive support the USA offers to Israel. It provided their governments with a certain margin of liberty in dealing with the two superpowers, striving to play one against the other. This is no longer the case since the collapse and the disintegration of the Socialist bloc in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. This loss of an important source of external support was aggravated by the serious split of ranks in the Arab world as a result of the second Gulf War.
This broad issue was an object of debate among Arab Political scientists who met in Cairo in a meeting organized by the Arab Political Science Association. They discussed the nature of the New World situation, Relations between the two top powers of the changed international system and Arab countries, as well as positions of the newly rising powers on questions of concern to the Arab world. They also analyzed how this new situation impacts the United Nation. And as to be expected, they reflected on the best ways Arab countries could deal with this new situation.
This book .a joint enterprise between the Center for Study of Developing Countries and the Arab Political Science Association, brings to the reader contributions of prominent Arab Political scientists, as well as the debates which these contributions gave rise to.

3-Development Library:

Development Library No.1: The Economical Function of the State: A theoretic Study by Moataz Bellah Abdel Fattah, 1998. (Arabic), p.390

This book is the first in the new series published by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries to be known as "Development Library ". Its focus is on the economic function of the state, viewed from the perspective of classical and contemporary schools concerned with this question. It analyses stands taken by these schools on causes of the state intervention or reluctance to intervene the economy, the most appropriate policies to be adopted when it intervenes, the optimum extent of intervention, and the activities that should be excluded from that intervention.
The book traces origins, evolution and implications of major concepts used by these schools, briefly examining contributions of Mercantilist, Physiocratic, other Classical, Utilitarian, and Socialist schools, moving to a more elaborate examination of writings in the Kensyan, Post-Kensyan, Institutionalist, Neo-Liberalist, Leninist, Structural Marxist, Corporatist and Dependency traditions.
The book relates the fortunes of these schools to the major economic and political developments of the last two centuries striving to discern the factors that led to the rise, decline or fall of the key concepts they articulated.
The author is Moataz Bellah Abdel-Fattah, lecturer at the Faculty of Economics and Political Science of Cairo University. The book was originally a dissertation he submitted in view of obtaining his M.A.

Development Library No.2 : Urban Marginality and Development in Egypt, By Professor Galal Abdallah Mo'awwad.

This book is the second in the series" Development Library" and the first product of the research program" Agents of Development" carried out by the Center for the Study of Developing Countries during the period 1995-1997.
It purports to unravel a complex phenomenon, not easily understood, namely urban marginality, thought commonly to be associated with unemployment, poverty, crime and engagement in acts of armed resistance to authorities. Urban marginalized population is perceived in Egypt to be inhabitants of "squatter settlements".
This study demonstrates that population of these urban areas are, sociologically speaking, mixed in character. Many of them are gainfully employed, though a considerable number amongst them is underemployed. Those who engage in illegal activities, including armed resistance to authorities are either, a tiny minority, or outsiders to their communities but they seek these settlements as hideouts.
The author traces this phenomenon through five chapters, starting with an analysis of the nature of the phenomenon, its socio-economic and cultural dimensions, proceeding to an examination of the political participation of the urban marginalized population, the truth about their alleged involvement in acts of political violence and the type of public policies towards them. He ends by assessing their possible contribution to the process of development.

The author is a professor of political science at the Faculty of Economics and Political Science of Cairo University.

4-Development Notes: 

Development Notes No. 1: The Concept of Structural Causality and Self-Organization Theory: A Comparative Study of the Concept implementation in Social Sciences, With Reference to Thomas Hobbes and Adam Smith (No.1), by Dr.Hazem A. Hosny, November 1995. (Arabic), p.18.
Self-organization theory occupies a special place in social-science computing theory. Self-organization is based upon the unconventional concept of structural causality. Upon this same concept, Political Arithmetic – first introduced by W. Petty In the mid 17th century’s Cromwellian revolution – and Statistics – first introduced by G. Achenwall in the mid 18th century’s industrial revolution – have found their scientific bases. Though closely related to the enrooted invisible-hand theory in social sciences, structural causality is seldom mentioned In literature whether for statistics or for social science computing. This research aims to tracing the concepts of structural causality and self-organization in social-science literature. The paper is designed as a comparative study linking self-organization ideas adopted by Thomas Hobbes – whose thought was generated by the historical context of the Cromwellian revolution – and those of Adam Smith – generated by the historical context of the industrial revolution.
The paper is considered by the author as a step forward to firmly root statistical and computational thinking in the very soil of social sciences, far from mathematical and computational techniques considered by the author as only tools to formulate problems tackled In social sciences, not to formulate the very subject of the social science itself.

Development Notes No. 2: Some Epistemological Issues Common to Development, Social Statistics, and Social-science Computing Thoughts (No.2), by Dr.Hazem A. Hosny, Mai 1996. (Arabic), p.25.

Interdisciplinary science as social statistics and social science computing always raise complex epistemological problems, the most important of which concerns the homogeneity between the philosophy of the subject and the philosophy of the tool. Neglecting such epistemological problems puts in doubt the scientific foundations of introducing mathematics into social sciences, as well as the value of mathematics in building social-science theories. A critical search for the intellectual sources of social statistics and social-science computing reveals that the role played by freewill was decisive in establishing the theoretical bases of these two interdisciplinary sciences. In their turn, development studies are also interdisciplinary. In fact, they reflect the severe conflict between these collective wills in one hand, and between this collective will and that of the political authority in the other hand. In this quality, development studies were always in the center of the intellectual debate that ended by establishing social statistics and social science computing. The paper traces these intellectual sources in the economic and political contexts of the 19th century England. The schools of statistical thought are classified according to the place human freewill contributes to their respective theoretical foundations. The role played by Charles Babbage, the father of machine computing, in establishing interdisciplinary in social science Is also stressed.

Development Notes No. 3: Critical Study of the Pythagorean Approach to Computational Modeling of the Body Politic from Socrates to Samuel Huntington (No.3), by Dr.Hazem A. Hosny, December 1996. (Arabic), p.29.

The Pythagorean tradition of modelling the body politic, that is, without involving the real substance of measurement scales, without reference to their effect on the study of the variation element in the political phenomenon, and without indication to what happens at the analysis level when implementing one measurement scale instead of another, has led to computational models of no real scientific value. Amongst the best examples revealing the devastating effects of this Pythagorean approach are the political-regimes differentiation models. These two examples, however, are neither exhausting, nor exclusive representations of the problem. They are chosen, however, as entrance gates to tackle the measurement problem encountered in political studies during the computational modeling process, as well as indicators to its persistence from the time of Pythagoras up to the modern age.

5.  1999 Publications: 


1. Mustapha K. Al-Sayyid & Asef Bayat, eds. Cairo at a Turning Point. 1999.

2. Mustapha K. Al-Sayyid, ed. A New World Economy: Which Position for Egypt?

3. Professor Heba Nassar, ed. Women and Development.

4. Dr. Nagwa Abdallah, ed. Non – Governmental Organizations and Economic Development in Egypt.

    Development Notes:

* Dr. Emad El-Shafiei. Rationalizing the Use of Water as A Challenge to Agricaltural Development in Egypt.

Address: Center for the Study of Developing Countries,
Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University.

Centers direct Phone No. : 5705542 - 5728055 - 5728116
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